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روان‌شناسی اسلامی تجربی: دیدگاه‌ها و استنباط از تحقیقات تجربی

دکتر باقر غباری بناب، دانشیار دانشکدۀ روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تهران

 

دکتر فاطمه نصرتی، استادیار دانشکدۀ روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تهران،

چکیده

هدف از این مقاله کوششی منظم به‌منظور رسیدن به ملاک‌ها و معیارهای روان‌شناسی اسلامی در راستای بومی‌سازی علوم انسانی و توسعۀ یک نظریۀ مبتنی‌بر متون دینی تجربه‌پذیر است که پاسخ‌گوی مشکلات مسلمانان ‌‌باشد. در این راستا کوشش وسیعی به‌عمل آمد که پیشینه‌ها به‌صورت سیستماتیک و منظم بررسی شود. در این کوشش، پژوهشگران به مقالۀ مروری ابوالرعایا و پارگامنت‌(۲۰۱۱) دست یافتند و آن‌ را مبنای تحقیقات تجربی خود قرار دادند. با توجه به معیارهای منظم‌بودن و مطالعۀ سیستماتیک و داشتن اشتهار علمی در زمینۀ روان‌شناسی دینی، برای عرضه به محافل علمی، نقد‌ و ‌بررسی و استفادۀ روان‌درمانگران و روان‌شناسان و مشاوران ترجمه و به‌عنوان اولین نقد ‌و ‌بررسی، خود به نقد آن پرداختند. حاصل نقد پژوهشگران نشان داد با اینکه مقالۀ ابوالرعایا و پارگامنت‌(۲۰۱۱)، کوشش قابل تقدیری در زمینۀ ارتباط سلامت روان، باورها، اعتقادات و رفتارهای مذهبی است، نمی‌توان آن‌ را «روان‌شناسی تجربی» نامید؛ علاوه‌بر‌این، پژوهشگران به معیارهای تدوین و توسعۀ روان‌شناسی اسلامی اشاره کردند و محققان را در راستای این همت بزرگ راهنمایی و تشویق کردند. این پژوهشگران تأکید کردند که برای توسعۀ روان‌شناسی اسلامی، یافتن یک نظریۀ جامع و مانع، منسجم و پاسخ‌گو به مسائل و مشکلات مسلمانان لازم است که تدوین آن بدون استفاده از منابع اصیل اسلامی مثل قرآن، داستان‌های قرآنی، احادیث نبوی، سیره و سنت پیامبر اکرم‌(ص) و ائمه اطهار‌(ع)، بررسی رفتارها و انگیزه‌های مسلمانان عامل، پیامبران و ائمه اطهار(ع) ممکن نیست. همچنین، پژوهشگران به اهمیت تحقیقات کیفی از‌جمله تحقیقات پدیدارشناختی، هرمونوتیکی و آمیخته، علاوه‌بر تحقیقات کمی که مبتنی‌بر فلسفۀ علم تحصلی است، تأکید کردند. تلویحات نظری و کاربردهای عملی‌پژوهش حاضر، برای پژوهشگران آینده در اصل مقاله آمده است.

 

کلیدواژه‌ها: روانشناسی اسلامی، روان‌شناسی تجربی، تحقیقات کمی و کیفی، نظریه‌پردازی، آزمون نظریه، چالش‌های اساسی، نقد و بررسی.

کتاب‌نامه

دشتی، محمد. ۱۳۸۴٫ نهج‌البلاغه امیرالمؤمنین‌(علیه‌السلام). دفتر نظارت و بازرسی انتخابات استان قم. چاپ اسوه.

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